Chloride limits in the ACI 318 Concrete Construction

chloride ion (Cl-) content chloride corrosion in concrete, percent by threshold (0.15% weight of cement by weight of cement) Prestressed concrete 0.06 40 Reinforced concrete exposed to chloride in service 0.15 100 Reinforced concrete that will be dry or protected from moisture in service 1.00 666 Other reinforced concrete construction 0.30 200

get price

Discussion and experiments on the limits of chloride

Cited by: 3

Analysis of total chloride content in concrete

Hence, the limits of total chloride content in concrete could be violated even though the limits of chloride content for mix ingredients are satisfied. Therefore, it can be stated that chloride limits of concrete ingredients and total concrete could not be consistent, especially with mix designs that have water cement ratios higher than 0.48.

get price

Permissible Levels of Chlorides and Sulfates in

Q. We're designing a concrete structure in Egypt, and I received test results for the aggregate to be used in the concrete. The report lists chloride and sulfate content, but I don't know how to evaluate these numbers because ASTM C 33, "Standard Specification for Concrete

get price

The combined effect of chlorides and sulphates

Cited by: 1

CORROSION IN CONCRETE UNDER SULPHATE AND

CORROSION IN CONCRETE UNDER SULPHATE AND CHLORIDE ATTACKS. 2 SULPHATE ATTACK AND CHLORIDE PENETRATION IN CONCRETE . cement type and content, placing the concrete, formwork parameters.

get price

Sulfate Attack and Sulfate Content in Concrete: A

2017-1-14  Sulfate Attack and Sulfate Content in Concrete: A Literature Review Published on January 14, 2017 January 14, 2017 • 101 Likes • 9 Comments

get price

Effect of Chloride and Sulfate Contamination in Soils on

3A) content should be used (4). Rash­ eeduzzafar et al. (5 indicated better performance by high­ ~A cements in chloride environments. Although the use of cement with high ~A phase, more than 12 percent per se, is useful from a reinforcement corrosion standpoint, it poses the danger of deterioration and disintegration of concrete due to

get price

EFFECT OF CARBONATION, CHLORIDE AND SULPHATE

2018-8-9  resistance of concrete to chloride ion penetration can be improved by reduction of the water-cement ratio. The content of chloride ion is higher in concrete stressed in tension than in unstressed concrete. For concrete stressed in compression, chloride content depends on stress level. Salt solution immersion is more severe than salt spray.

get price

Analysis of total chloride content in concrete RILEM

2020-3-3  Total chloride content:is the total amount of chloride ion in a sample of concrete, including bound in the solid phases and free chlorides in the pore solution. Free chloride content:is the amount of chloride ion in the pore solution as obtained by squeezing con-crete samples at high pressures. Water soluble chloride content:is the amount of

get price

Effect of Combined Sulfate-Chloride ttack on Concrete

2020-6-13  Effect of Combined Sulfate-Chloride ttack on Concrete Durability- Reiew.. Ramezanianpour, E. Riahi Dehkordi * Ciil Engineering, mirkabir niersity of Technology, Tehran, Iran ABSTRACT: Chloride and sulfate ions damage the reinforced concrete in marine enironment due to the corrosion and formation of expansie products, respectiely.

get price

Chloride content limits recommended by ACI Committee

tests for total chloride content (of the hardened concrete) be made first, according to the method of ASTM C 114. (If desired, the chlori d e content of any of the ingre d i e n t s may be determined separa t e l y.) If the total chloride content exc e e d s the allowable limits, then the water-soluble portion should be mea-s

get price

RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE AGAINST COMBINED

diffusion coefficients increase for ordinary Portland cement concrete and 50 % slag concrete, but not for HSR concrete. However, for all concretes chloride binding decreases when sulphate content increases. Generally the C 3 A-content of the cement plays a major role in the attack

get price

Chloride Content of Portland Cement Concrete Powder

the chloride content in sodium chloride-doped concrete. Several sodium chloride-doped concrete beams were pre­ pared with a chloride content that ranged from 0.35 to 1.42 kg/m3 • Dry-powder samples of concrete was obtained from these beams using the Kansas vacuum drilling technique (JO).

get price

Analysis of total chloride content in concrete RILEM

2020-3-3  Total chloride content:is the total amount of chloride ion in a sample of concrete, including bound in the solid phases and free chlorides in the pore solution. Free chloride content:is the amount of chloride ion in the pore solution as obtained by squeezing con-crete samples at high pressures. Water soluble chloride content:is the amount of

get price

EFFECT OF CARBONATION, CHLORIDE AND SULPHATE

2018-8-9  resistance of concrete to chloride ion penetration can be improved by reduction of the water-cement ratio. The content of chloride ion is higher in concrete stressed in tension than in unstressed concrete. For concrete stressed in compression, chloride content depends on stress level. Salt solution immersion is more severe than salt spray.

get price

Evaluation of Chloride Limits for Reinforced Concrete

2017-11-7  The total chloride content in a concrete mixture can be estimated when the mixture proportions are being developed for the project. This involves calculating the total chloride content based on measured chloride content of the materials and the concrete mixture proportions. If the calculated total chloride

get price

sulfate contents in fine aggregate fo concrete ME

sulfate contents in fine aggregate fo concrete. May 10, 2017 The sulfate content in fine aggregate contains sulfate higher than the acceptable limits in most of the fine aggregate in Middle East countries (AlKadhimi and Hamid, 1983) (AlAmeeri and Issa,2013) results show that the fresh properties such as decreased workability of selfcompacting concrete is passively influenced from sulfate

get price

Critical chloride content in reinforced concrete

2014-11-17  COIN Workshop on “critical chloride content” in reinforced concrete 8 10.00 11.00 Gro Markeset: Critical chloride content and its influence on service life predictions. Discussion 11.00 12.00 Tang Luping: A field study of critical chloride content in reinforced concrete

get price

DETERMINING CHLORIDE IN CONCRETE ftp.dot.state.tx.us

2016-7-13  DETERMINING CHLORIDE IN CONCRETE TXDOT DESIGNATION: TEX-617-J CONSTRUCTION DIVISION 6 14 LAST REVIEWED: OCTOBER 2014 8.4 Calculate pounds of chloride per cubic yard of concrete: 1,000,000 P Cl Du c Where: P = pounds of chloride per cubic yard of concrete Cl = concentration of chloride ions in the original concrete sample, ppm D c = density of concrete =

get price

DETERMINING CHLORIDE IN CONCRETE ftp.dot.state.tx.us

2016-7-13  DETERMINING CHLORIDE IN CONCRETE TXDOT DESIGNATION: TEX-617-J CONSTRUCTION DIVISION 6 14 LAST REVIEWED: OCTOBER 2014 8.4 Calculate pounds of chloride per cubic yard of concrete: 1,000,000 P Cl Du c Where: P = pounds of chloride per cubic yard of concrete Cl = concentration of chloride ions in the original concrete sample, ppm D c = density of concrete =

get price

Analysis of water soluble chloride content in concrete

2020-3-3  Total chloride content:Is the total amount of chloride ion in a sample of concrete, including bound in the solid phases and free chlorides in the pore solution. Free chloride content:Is the amount of chloride ion in the pore solution as obtained by squeezing con-crete samples at high pressures. Water soluble chloride content:Is the amount of

get price

Determination of Chloride and Sulfate in Water and Soil

2016-11-28  The determination of chloride and sulfate in water and soil is also important because these anions can have a corrosive impact on concrete structures. For instance, a sulfate anion carried through rain water can attack concrete by reacting with hydrated compounds in the hardened cement paste. These reactions can induce sufficient pressure to

get price

Sulphate Attack on Concrete Process and Control of

2020-6-22  The compounds responsible for sulphate attack on concrete are water-soluble sulphate-containing salts, such as alkali-earth (calcium, magnesium) and alkali (sodium, potassium) sulphates that are capable of chemically reacting with components of concrete.

get price

Challenges of Concrete Construction: Volume 6,

2019-5-21  This is because of the high gypsum content usually present in sand and gravel used in concrete. Specifications usually put upper limits of SO 3 content in cement, aggregate and concrete. The upper limit of SO 3 content is calculated assuming that sulfates from all concrete ingredients have the same effect. Based on the results of an extensive

get price

Sulfate Attack and Sulfate Content in Concrete: A

2017-1-14  Sulfate Attack and Sulfate Content in Concrete: A Literature Review Published on January 14, 2017 January 14, 2017 • 101 Likes • 9 Comments

get price

TIP 13 Chloride Limits in Concrete

2015-7-30  Chloride limits are expressed on the basis of chloride ion (Cl⁻). Not all chlorides in concrete contribute to corrosion. Some chlorides are chemically bound in the cement hydration products typically cements with higher C 3 A (tricalcium aluminate) content and hydration products of supplementary cementitious materials. It

get price

(PDF) Potential Chemical attack on Concrete

Chloride, sulphate and pH concentrations in the samples were determined, based on the results, the concentration of sulphate is between 7.5mg/l and 2290.5mg/l with an average of 204.6mg/l, the

get price

Concrete @ your Fingertips The Concrete Society

BRE Digest 444 gives a more comprehensive interpretation of all the factors involved in chloride-induced corrosion. Measures for improving the resistance of the concrete to chloride ingress and approaches to modelling the rate of chloride ingress are given in Concrete Society Technical Report 61, Enhancing reinforced concrete durability.

get price

EFFECT OF CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION IN SOIL ON

2011-4-6  In order to evaluate the effect of chloride concentration in soil on reinforcement corrosion, reinforced concrete specimens were exposed to soil with a chloride concentration of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%. The reinforced concrete specimens were placed in containers filled with contaminated soil such that only half

get price